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Military music

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Today, military music is most often practiced at ceremonies , raising flags , anniversaries, installations, etc., but in the past it also had a practical purpose - in the turmoil of war , the sound of a trumpet or drum conveyed orders, because music was better heard than the commander's voice. Military music has been simplified, its instrumentation consists of various types of drums and wind instruments. Usually - for practical reasons - all instruments are easily portable. From military music developed brass music, music of brass instruments, military, which is also performed in colleges .

Music sharing vocal - instrumental - vocal-instrumental

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Music is very difficult to divide and categorize quite accurately, due to its complexity.
However, large divisions can easily be made.

According to what it is performed, we can divide the music into:

  • vocal - music that is sung, ie performed in sung tones;
  • instrumental - music that is played, ie performed by playing an instrument;
  • vocal-instrumental - a combination of both.

According to the title of the work, the music can be:

  • program - works of art that have a specific title that reveals the musical content (program). All vocal works belong to this type because they have words, and therefore a title.
  • absolute - musical works whose title does not reveal the author's idea (although, of course, they also have a program). Such works usually bear only marks for tempo, form of composition, etc .: Allegro, Rondo, Presto, etc.

There is also a very wide division of music by genres , and less often the divisions are historical , depending on the period in which the music originated, and national , depending on the nationality of the composer. A very special genre is folk music , which has different rules (most often in singing), and which is a special direction in academies. The romantics mostly "borrowed" from this music, but also the classics, because it is very rich in melodies and beauty.

Music through history

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 The development of music is related to human development, so music is inseparable from the social environment, civilization and material development of man. Periods in the history of music generally correspond to periods in other arts (literature, painting). About its beginnings we can say that music has existed since man, much like dance .

The origin of music

It had great significance in the life of primitive peoples, even before civilization , but music historians do not deal with this period too much, they are more interested in the musical achievements of the cultural peoples of antiquity. Nevertheless, musicologists, studying historical sources and getting to know primitive tribes, have drawn several conclusions about music in prehistoric times:

  1. Music first served as a magical tool, which was supposed to help an action (harvest, marriage, successful hunting ...). Such music was regularly accompanied by dance, and was associated with religious ceremonies.
  2. At a more advanced stage of development, it served as a means of uplifting the fighting spirit and patriotic feelings.
  3. In an even later period, during the first division of labor, she brought joy and some rhythm to it.

The first instruments were flutes , wooden or bone, drums and percussion and, of course - the human voice , the most perfect instrument.

The music of the peoples of the Old Age

We know about the music of ancient Egypt primarily because of the various findings in Greece, with which they were in contact, and the significance of the musical culture of Egypt is precisely that Greek theories have their roots in Egypt. For the Egyptians, music was used primarily for religious ceremonies, and they knew harps, which they made artistically, flutes and sistrums (a type of metal percussion).

In China , which had a very long musical tradition, music was associated with philosophy . Their greatest philosopher Confucius taught that "music fertilizes the germs of virtue that man carries in his heart." Good music meant order, and bad music meant state . The five tones of their scale represented the five elements, and the later scale of 12 tones months in the year . They performed music at big ceremonies, and they knew a lot of instruments.


India
also gave an important place to music. They considered it a gift from God , which should be returned to the gods with song and music. The Indian scale seems to be very similar to the Chinese - it was pentatonic (five tones). We consider wine (with seven strings and a resonator) to be one of their oldest instruments , and they also appreciated bells. Most of this data historians draw from religious-philosophical books, the Vedas .

Music flourished in Palestine during the time of David and Solomon . To the Jews , music served in worship, but they are special because it was not a means of magic for them. They were not intoxicated by the music, but they caused a festive mood with it. They had very rich instruments, triangles, horns, drums, flutes, harps, lutes. Their singing of psalms and choral singing was taken over by medieval Catholic music.

 

Ancient Greece and Rome

 


In ancient Greece, the state took care of the development of art, and at the heart of their art was music.
Such an interest in art arises from the fact that in Greece the achievements
of culture were good for the whole nation . Although only a dozen records of Greek music have survived, we learn about it from literature, so we know that music played an important role in the state and society, youth education and, of course, mythology . For example, Apollo , the god (among others) of the sun, hence harmony and happiness, was the protector and god of music. The application of music to them was versatile: they sang lyrical songs in the choir, praised the gods with hymns, and music played an important role in the drama. There was a time when all men up to their thirties had to receive music education from state music schools. There were the Pythian Games , a musical-artistic counterpart to the Olympics . They developed a theory of music, and had scales (descending), which were named after the provinces: Doric, Phrygian and Lydian. Guitars , lyres and other string instruments were attributed the property of deepening human feelings and bringing harmony, and winds the power of excitement and ecstasy.

When the Romans conquered Greece, they took over their music, instruments and musical notation from other trumpet peoples, but they did not further promote this music, so its value fell. They did not have so much musical meaning, so the music was used to beautify the feasts of events and games, but this music was preserved by the philosopher Boetius in his work De institutione musica , on which rests the development of all today's music.

 

Middle Ages


The music of the Middle Ages knew two directions - church (sacral) and folk (secular) music.

Older sacred music builds on Jewish and Greco-Roman, and has taken over much from non-Christian peoples, especially Orientals, which she skillfully applied in her liturgical singing. An important part of liturgical music to this day is Gregorian chant , unanimous and unchanging church singing. He compiled and refined a collection of such Mass hymns in collaboration with his Benedictines in the book Antiphonary by Pope Gregory I , and we can call him a reformer of liturgical music

Secular music received a new type of song in the 12th century that was cultivated by troubadours (such as Arnaut Daniel ). They are most often about knightly military and love affairs, their loyalty, honesty, mercy, etc. In Germany, such singers were called Minnesängers , and they had rules ( tablature ) according to which art was taught. The jugglers were traveling musicians, persecuted by the authorities and the Church , but loved by the people because they were cheerful, humorous and frivolous, and united many professions in one. They knew how to play nine instruments, invent rhymes, juggle, imitate the voices of animals, enchant with cards and jump through four hoops ... In the 12th century, with the opening of the university, another group of traveling musicians, the Goliards, was formed. They were poor wandering students who moved in search of teachers . Unlike jugglers and troubadours, they were literate and knew Latin .

 

Renaissance

Like all other arts, music then experienced a renaissance and marked the end of ties with the Middle Ages. There is an interest in the cultural achievements of antiquity, and a desire to present antiquity in a reborn movement. A novelty is the printing of music - 60 years after Gutenberg 's invention of printing. Renaissance music is characterized by clear expression and simple forms, and the musical masters of the Renaissance include Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina , Orlando di Lassa and the Slovenian Jakob Gallus-Petelin .

A kind of connection between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is the Gothic period . At that time the instrumentation was increased: the most widespread instrument was the vielle (German: Fiedel), the forerunner of today's string instruments. There were harp, lyre, lute (unchanged to this day), horns, flutes, bells, drums. The organ (then called the queen of instruments ), the clavichord and the harpsichord - the forerunner of the piano - also appeared .

 

Baroque and Rococo


The artistic style of the
Baroque is an echo of progress in all sciences , which then took shape similar to today - astronomy , mathematics and physics flourished, the capitalist system was introduced, the first newspapers were published, the post office was introduced , the globe was constructed ... very attached to the Church, more precisely the process of counter-reformation , because the Church wanted to attract believers with luxury and outward splendor. Baroque manifested itself most strongly where the Counter-Reformation was strongest - in Italy , Germany , Austria, Spain , Poland .

The greatest masters of the Baroque are Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel , and Henry Purcell , Couperin , Caccini , Vivaldi , Lully , Schütz are also known . Baroque is ornate, full of ornaments and curvy lines, and the music has brought a polyphonic style, labels for dynamics and tempo , and new types of works ( opera , suite , oratorio , cantata , solo concert and others).

In the second half of the 18th century, Baroque grew into Rococo , especially in France . Rococo and the beginning of the classics are called gallant style in music , and are characterized by small, charming, slender forms; it is hedonistic and not so formal. Its important representatives are the sons of JS Bach.

It is important to note that in this period, baroque in music does not always correspond to baroque in other arts (literature, painting), so it is important to look at them separately.

 

Classicism

A new, great period began in 1730. The classic in it is the perfect unity of form and content, and it is also called the Vienna Classic . At this time the sonata form was raised to the highest degree , and the symphony , string quartet and classical opera were perfected .

The greatest masters of the classics, the Viennese classics, are the Haydn - Mozart - Beethoven trio , with Beethoven also entering Romanticism. There were many other composers, more interesting Luigi Boccherini, master of chamber music, Domenico Cimarossa, the greatest representative of the opera buffa (humorous opera), Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, author of many operas, and local composers Ivan Mane Jarnović , born of Dubrovnik parents perhaps on board in front of Dubrovnik.

Both Romanticism and Baroque are sometimes considered classics, but this is only the period from 1730 to 1820 (see below ). A more correct name would be serious music , although it is not entirely appropriate either, because classicism (classical) does not have to be serious, but it is serious in relation to modern genres.

Romanticism

19th century style , dominated by fantasy and emotion. It is created as a reaction to the unfulfilled promises of the French Revolution , dissatisfied and disappointed, the artist withdraws into himself, into the past - mostly the Middle Ages. He also retreats to nature , many romantic works glorify the murmur of a stream, the rustling of leaves, the seasons. Thus, by going to nature - to the countryside - the interest in folklore , the folk one, developed. This in turn encourages patriotism, so many romantics were fighters for the rights of the people.

For romanticism, shorter works, hourly thrills are important; the melody is now simple, without jumps, even simple, and now jumpy, excited, hanging. What used to be inconsistent, dissonant, is now preferred, and everything sounds good again - that is why some intervals and chords were considered dissonant in some periods and not in others. Romanticism is very rich in rhythmic and melodic elements, it always finds new interpretations. His greatest composers are Schubert , Schumann , Chopin , Wagner , Brahms , Liszt and others.

 

Music as a physical science

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 Musical material is made up of sounds, and they are created by the vibration of a body, which thus becomes a source of sound . Sound waves are transmitted through the air in the form of circles from the sound source to our ear. When the vibrations in the air are regular, what we hear is the tone - so the proper, clear sound. When the vibrations are irregular, we hear only noise or noise - sounds mostly more or less unpleasant to the human ear (although they are also used in music).

One vibration source may cause the same vibrations in other objects, but their vibrations must be consistent with the vibrations of the source. This is called resonance . Thus the sound of the human voice is produced not only by the vocal cords but also by resonant vibrations in the cranial cavity . Similarly, the sound box of a musical instrument vibrates resonantly with the initial movement given by the performer to the instrument. For example, the violin box resonates with the vibrations of the violin string and amplifies the tone. The more vibrations per second, the higher the tone. The human ear is extremely sensitive to differences in height and has a range of about 20 to as much as 20,000 vibrations per second. One mixed choirproduces frequencies between approximately 64 and 1500, and a concert piano between 20 and 4176 When a group of musicians play together, they harmonize their instruments with tone A defined by 440 Hz . .

Concept and definition of Music

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The word music itself comes from the
Slavic voice, and the word music from the Greek μουσική τέχνη (mousikē téchnē) - "art of muses ", of which only the first word μουσική, derived from the word μούσα (mousa), which means muse, has survived. Further on, the Latin form of music spread around the world , mostly describing pleasant sounds. This form is the most common in the world's languages.

Defining music is already a little harder, and many have tried it, from musicologists to performers. Basically, we can say that music is an art that expresses itself with sung and / or played tones , various sounds , noises and silence between them. Sounds and noises are mostly used by modern composers when they want to describe some content musically. The silence between the tones is made by pauses .

In addition to being a reproductive (performing) art, music is one of the fine (beautiful) arts because its goal is aesthetics . As film is called the seventh art , so music is, according to traditional aesthetics , the first art (that is, the first on the list of arts). Music also has points of contact with theater, not only because it is practiced in it, but there is also a genre that borrows it from both - the musical . Closely related to all three, but especially to music, is dance .

Music is shaped by time , because it can only be experienced over a period of time (unlike painting , which shapes space). That is why music must have a rhythmic arrangement of its raw material - tones and other sounds. In addition, we edit the music using melody (a series of tones of different pitches) and harmony (simultaneity of different pitches). Thus rhythm, melody and harmony become the basic elements of music.

Music is art

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Music is an art whose medium is the sound we organize in time and space , mostly according to some plan and intentionally, although there are other ways. Music is the art of tone that ennobles the temper of man, awakens a sense of order and beauty, and thus idealizes and characterizes different peoples. The creation, performance, importance, and sometimes definition of music is highly dependent on culture and social aspects. We divide music into genres and subgenres, but their boundaries and connections sometimes depend on personal interpretation.

 


A rounded and complete achievement of musical art is called a composition , musical work or composition. However, music is a reproductive art , similar to drama or dance , which means that it is not just about composing, but that a composed work needs to be performed (reproduced, interpreted) in order to be presented to the audience as a finished product of art. Music is performed by performers , and can be reproduced in two ways: by performing a work in front of an audience at a concert or a similar occasional ceremony and by broadcasting previously recorded content from a sound carrier ( CD , DVD )-and etc.) with the help of modern electronic equipment such as Hi-Fi , or auditory or audiovisual electronic media (eg radio , internet , etc.).

 

Sound History

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